The world is truly wireless, and battery-powered devices are ubiquitous, powering everything from consumer electronics to all sorts of industrial applications connected to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).
Consumer electronics are typically powered by alkaline batteries, consumer grade primary lithium (non-rechargeable) cells, or consumer grade rechargeable Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. There is also a growing number of industrial applications that require long-life power to operate maintenance-free for decades while delivering two-way wireless communications.
These applications include utility meter reading (AMR/AMI), wireless mesh networks, M2M and system control and data acquisition (SCADA), data loggers, measurement while drilling, oceanographic measurements, and emergency/safety equipment, to name a few.
Dramatic growth in remote wireless communications has been aided by new methods aimed at extending battery life, including low power chip sets, and low power wireless communications protocols such as ZigBee, WirelessHART, Bluetooth, DASH7, INSTEON, and Z-Wave.